The Dough is a dense paste that is obtained by mixing with water (and sometimes other ingredients, such as eggs, milk, sugar, oil, other fats) of various flours, usually obtained from cereals (but also more exotic, such as vegetables, roots, etc...), followed by kneading the respective mixture until obtaining the necessary different consistencies.
The dough can be classified as follows:
fermented or leavened (containing in this case yeast or other leavening agents),
unleavened, based on mayonnaise, usually used for bread and pastries or pasta.
Pasta is a food product, of different shapes and sizes, obtained on the basis of unleavened dough.
References: Read more about Doughs on Wikipedia