Flours can be obtained by milling (grinding) raw ingredients into powders of various granulations.
Usually, flour is obtained from grains of cereals that contain gluten.
- Flours obtained from these cereals all contain gluten in certain amounts (percentages), being classified as high, medium, or low gluten flours, accordingly.
- Many flours obtained from other raw ingredients do not contain gluten, such gluten-free flours being ground from a large palette of beans, nuts, seeds. roots, or fruits.
Flours are used to make many foods around the world, but bread is probably the most common food for most cultures.
Cereal flour, particularly wheat flour is used, but other flours are equally important, such as Corn Flour in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times, or Rye Flour in Central and Northern Europe, or rice flour in Asia.
Cereal flours consist either of the endosperm, germ, and bran milled together (resulting in whole-grain flour) or of the endosperm alone (refined flour).
- Universal White Wheat Flour is such a refined flour, with a very high gluten content (around 11%);
- Wholemeal Wheat Flour is a whole grain flour of off-white to a gray color and has a high gluten content.
References: Read more about Flours on Wikipedia